Does the book of Corinthians teach the concept of Purgatory?
The concept of Purgatory as taught by the Roman Catholic Church is a bit complex as it gets into a common belief of what must happen to us after we die. To try and simplify it I will try and answer your question “Is Purgatory outlined in the Bible, specifically in the book of Corinthians, as directly as I can.
The verses you are referring to are, as confirmed by the Catholic Church;
For no other foundation can anyone lay than that which is laid, which is Jesus Christ. Now if anyone builds on this foundation with gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, straw, each one's work will become clear; for the Day will declare it, because it will be revealed by fire; and the fire will test each one's work, of what sort it is. If anyone's work which he has built on it endures, he will receive a reward. If anyone's work is burned, he will suffer loss; but he himself will be saved, yet so as through fire. 1 Cor. 3:11-15
The Catholic church regards these verses as their proof of a ‘purification’ process that has to take place or that one has to go through in order to be cleansed before we can get to Heaven. The issues of "one's work will become clear and being revealed by fire, the fire testing one's work" etc. in the above verses is where they obtain their belief that we enter into an intermediate place or process (Purgatory) to be purified from any remaining sin by the cleansing of ‘fire’. However this is not the context of these verses.
It must be noted that the word 'Purgatory' comes from a Latin word to purify or make clean. However neither this word nor any reference to any FURTHER process that is for the purposes of making us 'clean' is taught anywhere in the Bible. The most popular belief (one which I hold to) is that the sacrifice that Jesus made is what is needed for the forgiveness of our sins. To say there needs to be a 'purification' process, says what Jesus did, and the price he paid was not enough and that more needs to be done. This is not what the Bible teaches.
What the Bible does teach is that we are forgiven of our sins by believing in Jesus Christ as stated in Jon 3:16 for example, and the above verses refer to a judgment as to what we will or will not receive as a reward based upon our lives while we are living, not something we still ‘need to do’. I believe this is why in verse 15 it says "he will suffer loss; but he himself will be saved.." The loss is a loss of what we would have received if the sins we have committed did not occur, not an everlasting loss of our souls.
Also the Roman Catholic teaching goes beyond this and teaches that there are certain 'works' we will have to do to completely purify us while in this Purgatorial state before we can enter Heaven which again has no biblical basis.